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英语六级真题及答案下载

[] [] [] 发布人:凿光学习网   发布日期:2020-02-09 15:12   共 8 人浏览过

大学英语六级历年真题及详解(2017.6~2019.6)

本书是专门为提高考生参加大学英语六级成绩而编写的复习资料,其内容包括2017.6~2019.6的真题及详解,从答案详解、全文翻译、审题构思、范文点评等多角度予以分析,为考生分析了解题技巧,指明了解题思路。

在线阅读:http://zgw.100xuexi.com/EBook/965072.html


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2017年6月大学英语六级真题及详解(第一套)[听力音频]

2017年6月大学英语六级真题及详解(第二套)[听力音频]

2017年6月大学英语六级真题及详解(第三套)

2017年12月大学英语六级真题及详解(第一套)[听力音频]

2017年12月大学英语六级真题及详解(第二套)[听力音频]

2017年12月大学英语六级真题及详解(第三套)

2018年6月大学英语六级真题及详解(第一套)[听力音频]

2018年6月大学英语六级真题及详解(第二套)[听力音频]

2018年6月大学英语六级真题及详解(第三套)

2018年12月大学英语六级真题及详解(第一套)[听力音频]

2018年12月大学英语六级真题及详解(第二套)[听力音频]

2018年12月大学英语六级真题及详解(第三套)

2019年6月大学英语六级考试真题试卷(第一套)[听力音频]

2019年6月大学英语六级考试真题试卷(第二套)[听力音频]

2019年6月大学英语六级考试真题试卷(第三套)


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2017年6月大学英语六级真题及详解(第一套)[听力音频]

Part Ⅰ Writing (30 minutes)

Directions: Suppose you are asked to give advice on whether to major in science or humanities at college, write an essay to state your opinion. You are required to write at least 150words but no more than 200 words.

【审题构思】

题目要求考生针对大学中的专业选择提出自己的建议,根据给出的建议参照实际罗列相关原因,最后回归题目要求,进一步强调自己的建议。字数不少于150字,但不超过200字。

【参考范文】

Science or Humanities

(1) Many students have difficulties in deciding to major in science or humanities at college. As far as I am concerned, it is more advisable for students to choose science as their major in college. The reasons are as follows:

(2) Firstly, much emphasis has been put on the development of science in modern societies, which would contribute to the improvement of productivity and the living standard of people. For instance, the clean energy like solar power can be applied to household appliances because of the physics, a branch of science. (3) Secondly, with the help of comprehensive knowledge of science, people can also deepen their understandings about humanities. (4) Thirdly, the study of science rather than humanities makes people more rational and logicalwhen it comes to deal with complex issues. In addition, the rational thinking is extremely helpful in facing emergency.

(5) In a word, considering the benefits of science and humanities, it is more advisable for students to major in science in college.

【行文点评】

(1) 开门见山,表明大学生选择文理专业时难以抉择的现状并给出自己的观点。

(2) 给出选择理科专业的第一个原因:理科知识推动社会发展,并举例适当拓展。

(3) 给出选择理科专业的第二个原因:学习理科可以帮助人们加深对文科知识的理解。

(4) 给出选择理科专业的第三个原因:学习理科专业可以锻炼人的理性思维和逻辑思维能力。

(5) 总结全文,再次点题。

Part Ⅱ Listening Comprehension (30 minutes)

Section A

Directions: In this section, you will hear two long conversations. At the end of each conversation, you will hear four questions. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

Questions 1 to 4 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

1. A) Doing enjoyable work.

B) Having friendly colleagues.

C) Earning a competitive salary.

D) Working for supportive bosses.

2. A) 31%.

B) 20%.

C) 25%.

D) 73%.

3. A) Those of a small size.

B) Those run by women.

C) Those that are well managed.

D) Those full of skilled workers.

4. A) They can hop from job to job easily.

B) They can win recognition of their work.

C) They can better balance work and life.

D) They can take on more than one job.

【答案与解析】

1. B  根据录音内容可知:对于大多数受访者来说,工作中感到快乐最重要的因素是同事友好,而且能为他们提供支持。故选B。

2. B  根据录音内容可知:在工作中感到不快乐的人数比例为20%,故选B。

3. A  根据录音内容可知:人们更喜欢为人数少于100人的小型组织或企业工作。故选A。

4. C  根据录音内容可知:每日工作4或5个小时的兼职者要比全职者更加快乐。研究人员总结道:这可能是由于他们能在生活和工作中更好地达到平衡。故选C。

【录音原文】

W: Welcome to Work Place. And in today’s program, we are looking at the results of two recently published surveys, which both deal with the same topic—Happiness at Work. John, tell us about the first survey.

M: Well, this was done by a human resources consultancy who interviewed more than 1,000 workers and established a top 10 of the factors which make people happy at work. [1] The most important factor, for the majority of the people interviewed, was having friendly, supportive colleagues. In fact, 73% of people interviewed put their relationship with colleagues as the key factor contributing to happiness at work, which is a very high percentage. The second most important factor was having work that is enjoyable. The two least important factors were having one’s achievements recognized and rather surprisingly, earning a competitive salary.

W: So we are not mainly motivated by money?

M: Apparently not.

W: Any other interesting information in the survey?

M: Yes. For example, 25% of the working people interviewed described themselves as very happy at work. [2] However, 20% of employees described themselves as being unhappy.

W: That’s quite a lot of unhappy people at work every day.

M: It is, isn’t it? And there were several more interesting conclusions revealed by the survey. [3] First of all, small is beautiful. People definitely prefer working for smaller organizations or companies with less than 100 staff. We also find out that, generally speaking, women were happier in their work than men.

W: Yes, we are, aren’t we?

M: [4] And workers on part-time contracts who only work 4 or 5 hours a day are happier than those who work full-time. The researchers concluded that this is probably due to a better work-life balance.

W: Are bosses happier than their employees?

M: Yes. Perhaps not surprisingly, the higher people go in a company, the happier they are. So senior managers enjoy their jobs more than people working under them.

Questions 1 to 4 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

1. What is the number one factor that made employees happy according to the survey?

2. What is the percentage of the people surveyed who felt unhappy at work?

3. What kind of companies are popular with employees?

4. What is the possible reason for people on part-time contracts to be happier?

Questions 5 to 8 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

5. A) It is a book of European history.

B) It is an introduction to music.

C) It is about the city of Bruges.

D) It is a collection of photos.

6. A) When painting the concert hall of Bruges.

B) When vacationing in an Italian coastal city.

C) When taking pictures for a concert catalogue.

D) When writing about Belgium’s coastal regions.

7. A) The entire European coastline will be submerged.

B) The rich heritage of Europe will be lost completely.

C) The seawater of Europe will be seriously polluted.

D) The major European scenic spots will disappear.

8. A) Its waterways are being increasingly polluted.

B) People cannot get around without using boats.

C) It attracts large numbers of tourists from home and abroad.

D) Tourists use wooden paths to reach their hotels in the morning.

【答案与解析】

5. D  根据录音内容可知:2006年,布鲁日市音乐厅邀请该男子以水为主题为新音乐季的宣传图册拍摄照片,当时,媒体已经刊登过很多令人震惊的且即将发生的气候灾难文章,即将到来的恐惧成为了他拍摄大型照片集的主题。这表明这本书其实是一本照片集。故选D。

6. C  根据录音内容可知:2006年,布鲁日市音乐厅邀请该男子以水为主题为新音乐季的宣传图册拍摄照片,当时,媒体已经刊登过很多令人震惊的且即将发生的气候灾难文章,即将到来的恐惧成为了他拍摄大型照片集的主题。因此,他是在为音乐厅拍摄宣传图册时有了这种想法。故选C。

7. A  根据录音内容可知:整个欧洲海岸线消失在水下只是时间上的问题。全世界的许多大城市也会出现同样的问题。这表明,当气候灾难发生时,整个欧洲海岸线将被淹没。故选A。

8. D  根据录音内容可知:威尼斯最终也会受到海水的威胁,在这里,每天早上人们都要搭建木制的通道才能让游客到达旅店。故选D。

【录音原文】

W: Mr. De Keyzer, I am a great lover of your book, Moments Before the Flood. Can you tell us how you first became interested in the subject matter?

M: [6] In 2006, when the concert hall of the city of Bruges asked me to take some pictures for a catalogue for a new concert season around the theme of water, I found myself working along the Belgian coastline. As there had been numerous alarming articles in the press about a climate catastrophe waiting to happen, I started looking at the sea and the beach very differently, a place where I spent so many perfect days as a child. [5] This fear of a looming danger became the subject of a large-scale photo project.

W: You wrote in the book “I don’t want to photograph the disaster; I want to photograph the disaster waiting to happen.” Can you talk a bit about that?

M: [7] It is clear now that it’s a matter of time before the entire European coastline disappears under water. The same goes for numerous big cities around the world. My idea was to photograph this beautiful and very unique coastline, reaching history, before it’s too late—as a last witness.

W: Can you talk a bit about how history plays a role in this project?

M: Sure. The project is also about the history of Europe looking at the sea and wondering when the next enemy would appear. In the images, you see all kinds of possible defense constructions to hold back the Romans, Germans, Vikings, and now nature as enemy No.1. For example, there is the image of the bridge into the sea taken at the Normandy D-Day landing site. [8] Also, Venice, the city eternally threatened by the sea, where every morning wooden pathways have to be set up to allow tourists to reach their hotels.

W: Thank you, Mr. De Keyzer. It was a pleasure to have you with us today.

Questions 5 to 8 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

5. What does the man say about the book Moments Before the Flood?

6. When did the man get his idea for the work?

7. What will happen when the climate catastrophe occurs?

8. What does the man say about Venice?

Section B

Directions: In this section, you will hear two passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear three or four questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

Questions 9 to 12 are based on the passage you have just heard.

9. A) They make careful preparations beforehand.

B) They take too many irrelevant factors into account.

C) They spend too much time anticipating their defeat.

D) They try hard to avoid getting off on the wrong foot.

10. A) A person’s nervous system is more complicated than imagined.

B) Golfers usually have positive mental images of themselves.

C) Mental images often interfere with athletes’ performance.

D) Thinking has the same effect on the nervous system as doing.

11. A) Anticipate possible problems.

B) Make a list of do’s and don’ts.

C) Picture themselves succeeding.

D) Try to appear more professional.

12. A) She wore a designer dress.

B) She won her first jury trial.

C) She did not speak loud enough.

D) She presented moving pictures.

【答案与解析】

9. C  根据录音内容可知:在面对新情况时,一些人趋向于通过花费大量时间去预测最坏的情况,从而预演自己的失败。故选C。

10. D  根据录音内容可知:在斯坦福大学进行的研究表明,思想中的幻象与实际去做某件事一样,都会使神经系统产生反应。故选D。

11. C  根据录音内容可知:总之,在陷入任何有压力的情况之前,只关注你想要发生的那些事情。故选C。

12. B  根据录音内容可知:在她彩排几周之后,这位年轻的律师的确赢得了诉讼。故选B。

【录音原文】

[9] When facing a new situation, some people tend to rehearse their defeat by spending too much time anticipating the worst. I remember talking with a young lawyer who was about to begin her first jury trial. She was very nervous. I asked what impression she wanted to make on the jury. She replied, “I don’t want to look too inexperienced; I don’t want them to suspect this is my first trial.” This lawyer had fallen victim to the “don’ts” syndrome, a form of negative goal setting. The “don’ts” can be self-fulfilling because your mind responds to pictures. [10] Research conducted at Stanford University shows a mental image fires the nervous system the same way as actually doing something. That means when a golfer tells himself “Don’t hit the ball into the water,” his mind sees the image of the ball flying into the water. So guess where the ball will go. [11] Consequently, before going into any stressful situation, focus only on what you want to have happen. I asked the lawyer again how she wanted to appear at her first trial, and this time she said, “I want to look professional and self-assured.” I told her to create a picture of what “self-assured” would look like. To her it meant moving confidently around the court room, using convincing body language and projecting her voice so it could be heard from the judge’s bench to the door. She also imagined a skillful closing argument and a winning trial. [12] A few weeks after this dress rehearsal, the young lawyer did win.

Questions 9 to 12 are based on the passage you have just heard.

9. What do some people do when they face a new situation?

10. What does the research conducted at Stanford University show?

11. What advice does the speaker give to people in a stressful situation?

12. What do we learn about the lawyer in the court?

Questions 13 to 15 are based on the passage you have just heard.

13. A) Its long-term effects are yet to be proved.

B) Its health benefits have been overestimated.

C) It helps people to avoid developing breast cancer.

D) It enables patients with diabetes to recover sooner.

14. A) It focused on their ways of life during young adulthood.

B) It tracked their change in food preferences for 20 years.

C) It focused on their difference from men in fiber intake.

D) It tracked their eating habits since their adolescence.

15. A) Fiber may help to reduce hormones in the body.

B) Fiber may bring more benefits to women than men.

C) Fiber may improve the function of heart muscles.

D) Fiber may make blood circulation more smooth.

【答案与解析】

13. C  根据录音内容可知:如今,研究表明,在青少年的饮食中添加纤维可能有助于降低患乳腺癌的风险。故选C。

14. D  根据录音内容可知:这项新发现是基于对44000名妇女的研究得出的,包括对这些妇女在高中期间的饮食和20年饮食习惯的跟踪调查。故选D。

15. A  根据录音内容可知:这一发现指向了一项长期存在的证据,该证据表明,纤维可能减少女性体内循环的荷尔蒙水平,这就可以解释为什么纤维能降低患乳腺癌的风险。你吃的纤维越多,也许你体内的激素水平越低,因此一生中患上乳腺癌的风险就越低。故选A。

【录音原文】

Most Americans don’t eat enough fruits, vegetables or whole grains. [13] Research now says adding fiber to the teen diet may help lower the risk of breast cancer. Conversations about the benefits of fiber are probably more common in nursing homes than high schools. But along comes a new study that could change that. Kristi King, a diet specialist at Texas Children’s Hospital, finds it hard to get teenage patients’ attention about healthy eating by telling them that eating lots of high-fiber foods could reduce the risk of breast cancer before middle age. That’s a powerful message. [14] The new finding is based on a study of 44,000 women. They were surveyed about their diets during high school and their eating habits were tracked for two decades. It turns out that those who consumed the highest levels of fiber during adolescence had a lower risk of developing breast cancer, compared to the women who ate the least fiber. This important study demonstrates that the more fiber you eat during your high school years, the lower your risk is in developing breast cancer in later life. [15] The finding points to long-standing evidence that fiber may reduce circulating female hormone levels, which could explain the reduced risk. The bottom line here is the more fiber you eat, perhaps, a lower level of hormone in your body, and therefore, a lower lifetime risk of developing breast cancer. High-fiber diets are also linked to a reduced risk of heart disease and diabetes. That’s why women are told to eat 25 grams of fiber a day—men even more.

Questions 13 to 15 are based on the passage you have just heard.

13. What does the new study tell about adding fiber to the teen diet?

14. What do we learn about the survey of the 44,000 women?

15. What explanation does the speaker offer for the research finding?

Section C

Directions: In this section, you will hear three recordings of lectures or talks followed by three or four questions. The recordings will be played only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

Questions 16 to 18 are based on the recording you have just heard.

16. A) Observing the changes in marketing.

B) Conducting research on consumer behaviour.

C) Studying the hazards of young people drinking.

D) Investigating the impact of media on government.

17. A) It is the cause of many street riots.

B) It is getting worse year by year.

C) It is a chief concern of parents.

D) It is an act of socialising.

18. A) They spent a week studying their own purchasing behaviour.

B) They researched the impact of mobile phones on young people.

C) They analysed their family budgets over the years.

D) They conducted a thorough research on advertising.

【答案与解析】

16. B  根据录音内容可知:我(演讲者)目前的研究内容与消费者的行为有关。故选B。

17. D  根据录音内容可知:例如:在年轻人喝酒的案例中,我确认的一件事是年龄在18岁到24岁之间的人喝酒都和社交活动有关。故选D。

18. A  根据录音内容可知:去年,我(演讲者)的学生花了一周的时间查看他们自己的购买情况,并对购物以及自己和零售银行及手机供应商的之间的关系进行了详细地分析。故选A。

【录音原文】

[16] Well, my current research is really about consumer behavior. So recently, I’ve looked at young people’s drinking and it’s obviously a major concern to government at the moment. I’ve also looked at how older people are represented in the media. Again, it’s of major current interest with older people becoming a much larger proportion of UK, and indeed, world society. I’m also interested in how consumers operate online and how that online behavior might be different from how they operate offline when they go to the shops. Well, I think that the important thing here is to actually understand what’s happening from the consumers’ perspective. One of the things that businesses and indeed government organizations often fail to do is to really see what is happening from the consumers’ perspective. [17] For example, in the case of young people’s drinking, one of the things that I’ve identified is that drinking for people, say, between the ages of 18 and 24 is all about the social activity. A lot of the government advertising has been about individual responsibility, but actually understanding that drinking is very much about the social activity and finding ways to help young people get home safely, and not end up in hospital is one of the things that we’ve tried to present there. The key thing about consumer behavior is that it’s very much about how consumers change. Markets always change faster than marketing, so we have to look at what consumers are doing. Currently I teach consumer behavior to undergraduates in their second year, and we looked at all kinds of things in consumer behavior and particularly how consumers are presented in advertising. So they get involved by looking at advertising and really critically assessing the consumer behavior aspects of it, and getting involved, sometimes doing primary research. [18] For example, last year my students spent a week looking at their own purchasing and analysed it in detail from shopping to the relationship that they have with their retail banks and their mobile phone providers. I think they found it very useful and it also helped them identify just what kind of budgets they had too. The fact of the matter is that there is a whole range of interesting research out there. And I think as the years go on, there is going to be much more for us to consider and certainly much more for students to become involved in.

Questions 16 to 18 are based on the recording you have just heard.

16. What is the speaker currently doing?

17. What has the speaker found about young people’s drinking?

18. What does the speaker say that his students did last year?

Questions 19 to 22 are based on the recording you have just heard.

19. A) It is helping its banks to improve efficiency.

B) It is trying hard to do away with dirty money.

C) It is the first country to use credit cards in the world.

D) It is likely to give up paper money in the near future.

20. A) Whether it is possible to travel without carrying any physical currency.

B) Whether it is possible to predict how much money one is going to spend.

C) Whether the absence of physical currency causes a person to spend more.

D) Whether the absence of physical currency is going to affect everyday life.

21. A) There was no food service on the train.

B) The service on the train was not good.

C) The restaurant car accepted cash only.

D) The cash in her handbag was missing.

22. A) By putting money into envelopes.

B) By drawing money week by week.

C) By limiting their day-to-day spending.

D) By refusing to buy anything on credit.

【答案与解析】

19. D  根据录音内容可知:瑞典是欧洲第一个印制并且使用纸币的国家,但瑞典可能很快就会废除实物货币。故选D。

20. C  根据录音内容可知:没有实物货币是不是真的会导致人们花费更多的钱,Barrett想找出答案,所以几个月前她决定做一项实验。故选C。

21. C  根据录音内容可知:在这个实验中,Barrett乘坐火车出行。途中,火车上通知餐车暂时不接受使用信用卡,换句话说,餐车暂时只接受现金。故选C。

22. A  根据录音内容可知:Barrett的父母年轻时常常通过把钱放进信封进行资金预算。他们一拿到薪水就会立刻把现金分成几份并装进信封,所以他们知道每周要花多少钱。故选A。

【录音原文】

[19] Sweden was the first European county to print and use paper money, but it may soon do away with physical currencies. Bank can save a lot of money and avoid regulatory headaches by moving to a cash free system, and they can also avoid bank robberies, theft and dirty money.

Clear Barrett, the editor of Financial Times Money, says the Western world is headed toward a world without physical currency. Andy Holder, the chief economist at the Bank of England, suggested that the UK move towards a government-backed digital currency. But does a cashless society really make good economic sense? The fact that cash is being drawn out of society, is less a feature of our everyday lives, and the ease of electronic payments. Is this actually making us spend more money without realizing it?

[20] Barrett wanted to find out if the absence of physical currency does indeed cause a person to spend more, so she decided to conduct an experiment a few months ago. She decided that she was going to try to just use cash for two weeks to make all of her essential purchases and see what that would do to her spending. She found she did spend a lot less money, because it is incredibly hard to predict how much cash one is going to need. She was forever drawing money out of cash points. Months later, she was still finding cash stuffed in her trouser pockets and the pockets of her handbags. [21]During this experiment, Barrett took a train ride. On the way, there was an announcement that the restaurant car was not currently accepting credit cards. The train cars were filled with groans because many of the passengers were traveling without cash. [22] “It underlines just how much things have changed in the last generation,” Barrett say. “My parents, when they were younger, used to budget by putting money into envelopes. They’d get paid and they’d immediately separate the cash into piles, and put them in envelops, so they knew what they had to spend week by week. It was a very effective way for them to keep track of their spending.”

Nowadays, we are all on credit cards; we are doing online purchases and money is kind of becoming a less physical and more imaginary type of thing that we can’t get our heads around.

Questions 19 to 22 are based on the recording you have just heard.

19. What do we learn about Sweden?

20. What did Clear Barrett want to find out with her experiment?

21. What did Clear Barrett find on her train ride?

22. How did people of the last generation budget their spending?

Questions 23 to 25 are based on the recording you have just heard.

23. A) Population explosion.

B) Chronic hunger.

C) Extinction of rare species.

D) Environmental deterioration.

24. A) They contribute to overpopulation.

B) About half of them are unintended.

C) They have been brought under control.

D) The majority of them tend to end halfway.

25. A) It is essential to the wellbeing of all species on earth.

B) It is becoming a subject of interdisciplinary research.

C) It is neglected in many of the developing countries.

D) It is beginning to attract postgraduates’ attention.

【答案与解析】

23. B  根据录音内容可知:现在,有十亿人长期处在饥饿状态。这就意味着他们醒来时感到饥饿,一整天都感到饥饿,最后在饥饿中睡去。故选B。

24. B  根据录音内容可知:全球有大约一半的怀孕是意外怀孕。故选B。

25. A  根据录音内容可知:研究人口意味着在现实世界更加明智且更加有效地实施干预,这样做不仅使你自己更加幸福,重要的是还能使周围与我们共享地球的其他物种也更为幸福。故选A。

【录音原文】

Why should you consider taking a course in demography in college? You will be growing up in the generation where the baby boomers are going into retirement and dying. You will face problems in the aging of the population that have never been faced before. You will hear more and more about migration between countries, and between rural areas and cities. You need to understand as a citizen, and as a taxpayer, and as a voter, what’s really behind the arguments.

[23] I want to tell you about the past, present and future of the human population, so let’s start with a few problems. Right now, a billion people are chronically hungry. That means they wake up hungry, they are hungry all day and they go to sleep hungry. A billion people are living in slums, not the same billion people, but there is some overlap. Living in slums means they don’t have infrastructure to take the garbage away. They don’t have secure water supplies to drink. Nearly a billion people are illiterate. Try to imagine your life being illiterate. You can’t read the labels on the bottles in the supermarket, if you can get to a supermarket. Two-thirds of those people who are illiterate are women. And about 200 to 250 million women don’t have access to birth control they want, so that they can’t control their own fertility. This is not only a problem in developing countries. [24] About half of all pregnancies globally are unintended. So those are examples of population problems.

Demography gives you the tools to understand and to address these problems. It’s not only the study of human population, but the populations of non-human species, including viruses, like influenza, the bacteria in your gut, plants that you eat, animals that you enjoy, all that provide you with meat. Demography also includes the study of non-living objects like light bulbs and taxi cabs and buildings because these are also populations. It studies these populations in the past, present and future, using quantitative data and mathematical models as tools of analysis. I see demography as a central subject related to economics. [25] It is the means to intervene more wisely and more effectively in the real world to improve the wellbeing not only of yourself, important as that maybe, but of people around you and of other species with whom we share the planet.

Questions 23 to 25 are based on the recording you have just heard.

23. What is one of the problems the speaker mentions in his talk?

24. What does the speaker say about pregnancies?

25. How does the speaker view the study of populations?

Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)

Section A

Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.

After becoming president of Purdue University in 2013, Mitch Daniels asked the faculty to prove that their students have actually achieved one of higher education’s most important goals: critical thinking skills. Two years before, a nationwide study of college graduates had shown that more than a third had made no (26)_____ gains in such mental abilities during their school years. Mr. Daniels needed to (27)_____ the high cost of attending Purdue to its students and their families. After all, the percentage of Americans who say a college degree is “very important” has fallen (28)_____ in the last 5-6 years.

Purdue now has a pilot test to assess students’ critical thinking skills. Yet like many college teachers around the U.S., the faculty remain (29)_____ that their work as educators can be measured by a “learning (30)_____” such as a graduate’s ability to investigate and reason. However, the professors need not worry so much. The results of a recent experiment showed that professors can use (31)_____ metrics to measure how well students do in three key areas: critical thinking, written communication, and quantitative literacy.

Despite the success of the experiment, the actual results are worrisome, and mostly (32)_____ earlier studies. The organizers of the experiment concluded that far fewer students were achieving at high levels on critical thinking than they were doing for written communication or quantitative literacy. And that conclusion is based only on students nearing graduation.

American universities, despite their global (33)_____ for excellence in teaching, have only begun to demonstrate what they can produce in real-world learning. Knowledge-based degrees are still important, but employers are (34)_____ advanced thinking skills from college graduates. If the intellectual worth of a college degree can be (35)_____ measured, more people will seek higher education and come out better thinkers.

A) accurately

B) confirm

C) demanding

D) doubtful

E) drastically

F) justify

G) monopolized

H) outcome

I) predominance

J) presuming

K) reputation

L) significant

M) signify

N) simultaneously

O) standardized

【选项词性】

名词:

H) outcome结果

I) predominance主导或支配地位

K) reputation名声

动词:

B) confirm证实

F) justify为……辩护或作出解释

G) monopolized独占,垄断

M) signify意味

形容词:

C) demanding要求高的(动词demand的现在分词形式)

D) doubtful怀疑的

L) significant重要的

副词:

A) accurately精确地

E) drastically彻底地

N) simultaneously同时地

其他:

J) presuming专横的,假定(形容词或动词)

O) standardized标准的,使标准化(形容词或动词)

【答案与解析】

26. L  句意:有超过三分之一的学生在上大学期间没有在这类智力能力方面取得显著进步。空格置于名词gains之前,所以此处应填用来修饰名词的形容词。只有significant符合句意,故选L。

27. F  句意:丹尼尔斯需要向学生和家庭对花高昂的费用上普渡大学的合理性作出解释。根据need to do sth.的搭配可知空缺处缺少动词。只有justify符合文意,故选F。

28. E  句意:毕竟,在过去的五六年里,认为大学学位“非常重要”的美国人的比例已经急剧下降。通过分析可知该句主谓都有,修饰动词则应选择副词。drastically有“大大地,彻底地,激烈地”含义,可用来修饰降幅速度快。故选E。

29. D  句意:然而,和美国各地许多的大学教师一样,对于他们的教育工作可以通过研究生的调查和推理能力之类的“学习结果”来衡量,教师们仍然表示怀疑。由空缺处前是系动词remain可知该处应当填写形容词。选项中只有doubtful符合文意,故选D。

30. H  句意:然而,和美国各地许多的大学教师一样,对于他们的教育工作可以通过研究生的调查和推理能力之类的“学习结果”来衡量,教师们仍然表示怀疑。分析语法结构可知空缺处缺少名词,只有outcome最符合文意,故选H。

31. O  句意:最近的一项实验结果表明,教授们可以使用标准化的指标——批判性思维、书面沟通和定量识字——衡量学生在三个关键领域的表现。空缺处后面是名词,且该句并不缺少动词,则此处应当填写形容词。指标具有一定的稳定性,只有standardized最符合文意,故选O。

32. B  句意:尽管实验成功了,但实际结果却令人担忧,而且,实验结果主要证实了之前的研究。空缺处由副词修饰,且后面跟有形容词修饰的名词,因此该处缺少动词。只有confirm最符合文意,故选B。

33. K  句意:尽管美国大学卓越的教学能力在全球都享有声誉,但仅仅是开始证明它们可以在现实世界的学习中能产生什么样的结果。空缺处之前是形容词global,之后是介词for,则此处缺少名词。只有reputation最符合文意,故选K。

34. C  句意:以知识为基础的学位仍然很重要,但雇主要求的是大学毕业生的高级思维能力。只有demand最符合文意,故选C。

35. A  句意:如果大学学位的知识价值可以准确测量的话,会有更多的人寻求更高等的教育,从而产生更好的思想家。空缺处之前是系动词be,之后是动词的过去分词measured,因此此处应填副词,测量搭配精确,故选A。

【全文翻译】

2013年,在成为普渡大学校长后,Mitch Daniels要求教师们证明他们的学生实际上已经达到高等教育最重要的目标之一:拥有批判性思维能力。两年前,一项针对全国大学毕业生的研究表明,有超过三分之一的学生在上大学期间没有在这类智力能力方面取得显著进步。丹尼尔斯需要向学生及其家庭证明花高昂费用上普渡大学是合理的。毕竟在过去的五六年里,认为大学学位“非常重要”的美国人的比例已经急剧下降。

现在,普渡大学已经进行了初步测试,以此来评估学生的批判性思维能力。然而,和美国各地许多的大学教师一样,对于他们的教育工作可以通过研究生的调查和推理能力之类的“学习结果”来衡量,教师们仍然表示怀疑。然而,教授们无需如此担忧。最近的一项实验结果表明,教授们可以使用标准化的指标——批判性思维、书面沟通和定量识字——衡量学生在三个关键领域的表现。

尽管实验成功了,但实际结果却令人担忧,而且,实验结果主要证实了之前的研究。实验组织者断定,与书面沟通或定量识字的学生数相比,在批判性思维方面达到高水平的学生数量更少。而且这个结论仅仅基于那些即将毕业的学生。

尽管美国大学卓越的教学能力在全球都享有声誉,但仅仅是开始证明它们可以在现实世界的学习中能产生什么样的结果。以知识为基础的学位仍然很重要,但雇主要求的是大学毕业生的高级思维能力。如果大学学位的知识价值可以准确测量的话,会有更多的人寻求更高等的教育,从而产生更好的思想家。

Section B

Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.

The Price of Oil and the Price of Carbon

A) Fossil fuel prices are likely to stay “low for long.” Notwithstanding important recent progress in developing renewable fuel sources, low fossil fuel prices could discourage further innovation in, and adoption of, cleaner energy technologies. The result would be higher emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.

B) Policymakers should not allow low energy prices to derail the clean energy transition. Action to restore appropriate price incentives, notably through corrective carbon pricing, is urgently needed to lower the risk of irreversible and potentially devastating effects of climate change. That approach also offers fiscal benefits.

C) Oil prices have dropped by over 60% since June 2014. A commonly held view in the oil industry is that “the best cure for low oil prices is low oil prices.” The reasoning behind this saying is that low oil prices discourage investment in new production capacity, eventually shifting the oil supply curve backward and bringing prices back up as existing oil fields—which can be tapped at relatively low marginal cost—are depleted. In fact, in line with past experience, capital expenditure in the oil sector has dropped sharply in many producing countries, including the United States. The dynamic adjustment to low oil prices may, however, be different this time around.

D) Oil prices are expected to remain lower for longer. The advent of new technologies has added about 4.2 million barrels per day to the crude oil market, contributing to a global over-supply. In addition, other factors are putting downward pressure on oil prices: change in the strategic behavior of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, the projected increase in Iranian exports, the scaling- down of global demand (especially from emerging markets), the long-term drop in petroleum consumption in the United States, and some displacement of oil by substitutes. These likely persistent forces, like the growth of shale(页岩) oil, point to a “low for long” scenario. Futures markets, which show only a modest recovery of prices to around $ 60 a barrel by 2019, support this view.

E) Natural gas and coal also fossil fuels—have similarly seen price declines that look to be long-lived. Coal and natural gas are mainly used for electricity generation, whereas oil is used mostly to power transportation, yet the prices of all these energy sources are linked. The North American shale gas boom has resulted in record low prices there. The recent discovery of the giant Zohr gas field off the Egyptian coast will eventually have impact on pricing in the Mediterranean region and Europe, and there is significant development potential in many other places, notably Argentina. Coal prices also are low, owing to over-supply and the scaling-down of demand, especially from China, which burns half of the world’s coal.

F) Technological innovations have unleashed the power of renewables such as wind, hydro, solar, and geothermal(地热). Even Africa and the Middle East, home to economies that are heavily dependent on fossil fuel exports, have enormous potential to develop renewables. For example, the United Arab Emirates has endorsed an ambitious target to draw 24% of its primary energy consumption from renewable sources by 2021.

G) Progress in the development of renewables could be fragile, however, if fossil fuel prices remain low for long. Renewables account for only a small share of global primary energy consumption, which is still dominated by fossil fuels—30% each for coal and oil, 25% for natural gas. But renewable energy will have to displace fossil fuels to a much greater extent in the future to avoid unacceptable climate risks.

H) Unfortunately, the current low prices for oil, gas, and coal may provide little incentive for research to find even cheaper substitutes for those fuels. There is strong evidence that both innovation and adoption of cleaner technology are strongly encouraged by higher fossil fuel prices. The same is true for new technologies for alleviating fossil fuel emissions.

I) The current low fossil fuel price environment will thus certainly delay the energy transition from fossil fuel to clean energy sources. Unless renewables become cheap enough that substantial carbon deposits are left underground for a very long time, if not forever, the planet will likely be exposed to potentially catastrophic climate risks.

J) Some climate impacts may already be discernible. For example, the United Nations Children’s Fund estimates that some 11 million children in Africa face hunger, disease, and water shortages as a result of the strongest El Niño(厄尔尼诺) weather phenomenon in decades. Many scientists believe that El Nino events, caused by warming in the Pacific, are becoming more intense as a result of climate change.

K) Nations from around the world have gathered in Paris for the United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP 21, with the goal of a universal and potentially legally-binding agreement on reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We need very broad participation to fully address the global tragedy that results when countries fail to take into account the negative impact of their carbon emissions on the rest of the world. Moreover, non-participation by nations, if sufficiently widespread, can undermine the political will of participating countries to act.

L) The nations participating at COP 21 are focusing on quantitative emissions-reduction commitments. Economic reasoning shows that the least expensive way for each country is to put a price on carbon emissions. The reason is that when carbon is priced, those emissions reductions that are least costly to implement will happen first. The International Monetary Fund calculates that countries can generate substantial fiscal revenues by eliminating fossil fuel subsidies and levying carbon charges that capture the domestic damage caused by emissions. A tax on upstream carbon sources is one easy way to put a price on carbon emissions, although some countries may wish to use other methods, such as emissions trading schemes. In order to maximize global welfare, every country’s carbon pricing should reflect not only the purely domestic damage from emissions, but also the damage to foreign countries.

M) Setting the right carbon price will therefore efficiently align the costs paid by carbon users with the true social opportunity cost of using carbon. By raising relative demand for clean energy sources, a carbon price would also help align the market return to clean-energy innovation with its social return, spurring the refinement of existing technologies and the development of new ones. And it would raise the demand for technologies such as carbon capture and storage, spurring their further development. If not corrected by the appropriate carbon price, low fossil fuel prices are not accurately signaling to markets the true social profitability of clean energy. While alternative estimates of the damage from carbon emissions differ, and it’s especially hard to reckon the likely costs of possible catastrophic climate events, most estimates suggest substantial negative effects.

N) Direct subsidies to research and development have been adopted by some governments but are a poor substitute for a carbon price: they do only part of the job, leaving in place market incentives to overuse fossil fuels and thereby add to the stock of atmospheric greenhouse gases without regard to the collateral(附带的) costs.

O) The hope is that the success of COP 21 opens the door to future international agreement on carbon prices. Agreement on an international carbon-price floor would be a good starting point in that process. Failure to address comprehensively the problem of greenhouse gas emissions, however, exposes all generations, present and future, to incalculable risks.

36. A number of factors are driving down the global oil prices not just for now but in the foreseeable future.

37. Pricing carbon proves the most economical way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

38. It is estimated that extreme weather conditions have endangered the lives of millions of African children.

39. The prices of coal are low as a result of over-supply and decreasing demand.

40. Higher fossil fuel prices prove to be conducive to innovation and application of cleaner technology.

41. If fossil fuel prices remain low for a long time, it may lead to higher emissions of greenhouse gases.

42. Fossil fuels remain the major source of primary energy consumption in today’s world.

43. Even major fossil fuel exporting countries have great potential to develop renewable energies.

44. Greenhouse gas emissions, if not properly dealt with, will pose endless risks for mankind.

45. It is urgent for governments to increase the cost of using fossil fuels to an appropriate level to lessen the catastrophic effects of climate change.

【答案与解析】

36. D  根据D段可知:此外,其他因素也对油价下降施加压力:石油输出国组织的战略行为发生了变化,预计伊朗出口会增加,全球需求减少(尤其是新兴市场),美国石油消费量长期下降,一些石油被其他替代品代替。所以题干内容对应的是D段,故选D。

37. L  根据L段可知:经济推理显示,对各国来说,最便宜的方式就是对碳排放进行定价。所以题干内容对应的是L段,故选L。

38. J  根据J段可知:如联合国儿童基金会预测,近几十年来将近有1,100万的非洲儿童面临饥饿、疾病和缺水的问题,这些都是由最强烈的厄尔尼诺气候现象导致的。所以题干内容对应的是J段。故选J。

39. E  根据E段可知:由于供求量过剩、需求降低,尤其是煤炭消耗量占全球一半的中国其煤炭需求量不断减少,所以煤的价格也会走低。所以题干内容对应的是E段。故选E。

40. H  根据H段可知:有充足的证据表明,清洁技术的创新和使用都会受更高化石燃料价格的大力鼓励。降低化石燃料排放的新技术也是如此。所以题干内容对应的是H段。故选H。

41. A  根据A段可知:化石燃料的价格可能会保持“长时间走低”。其结果可能导致排放出更多的二氧化碳和其他的温室气体。所以题干内容对应的是A段。故选A。

42. G  根据G段可知:全球主要的能源消耗仍受化石燃料支配,可再生能源只占其中的一小部分——其中,煤炭和石油占30%,天然气占25%。所以题干内容对应的是G段。故选G。

43. F  根据F段可知:即使是非洲和中东这样严重依赖化石燃料出口经济的地方,也有很大的潜力开发可再生能源。所以题干内容对应的是F段。故选F。

44. O  根据O段可知:然而,不能将温室气体的排放问题彻底解决会使现在或者未来的人们面临不可估量的风险。所以题干内容对应的是O段。故选O。

45. B  根据B段可知:气候变化会存在不可逆转的、潜在的毁灭性影响风险,所以为了恢复适当的价格,必须采取行动,特别是通过纠正碳定价来降低气候变化带来的风险。所以题干内容对应的是B段。故选B。

【全文翻译】

石油价格和碳价格

A) [41] 化石燃料的价格可能会保持“长时间走低”。尽管最近在开发可再生能源方面取得了重要进展,清洁能源技术的进一步创新和使用可能会受到化石燃料较低价格的阻碍。[41] 其结果可能导致排放出更多的二氧化碳和其他的温室气体。

B) 政策制定者不应允许低能源价格阻碍清洁能源转型。[45] 气候变化会存在不可逆转的、潜在的毁灭性影响风险,所以为了恢复适当的价格,必须采取行动,特别是通过纠正碳定价来降低气候变化带来的风险。这种方法也会在财政上带来效益。

C) 自从2014年6月开始,石油的价格下跌幅度已超过60%。石油行业持有的普遍的观点是,“对付低油价最好办法就是低油价。”这句话背后可推理出:走低的石油价格阻碍了对新生产能力的投资,最终将石油供给曲线向后推移,现有的油田以相对较低的边际成本进行开采,随着这些油田逐渐的枯竭,石油价格将会回升。事实上,根据过去的经验,许多国家生产石油的部门资本支出急剧下降,其中就包括美国。然而,这次对低油价的动态调整可能会跟以往不同。

D) 预计石油价格将在长时间保持走低。新技术的出现使原油市场每天增加约420万桶的石油,这导致全球石油供应过量。[36] 此外,其他因素也对油价下降施加压力:石油输出国组织的战略行为发生了变化,预计伊朗出口会增加,全球需求减少(尤其是新兴市场),美国石油消费量长期下降,一些石油被其他替代品代替。如页岩油的增长,这些存在的持续的力量使石油价格走低成为可能。到2019年,石油价格会小幅回升,恢复到60美元每桶的价格,由期货市场可以看出,上述观点得到了支持。

E) 天然气和煤炭也属于化石燃料,相似的是,两者都有价格长期下降的趋势。煤和天然气主要用来发电,而石油大多数用来运输动力,但这些能源的价格都紧密相关。页岩气的繁荣发展致使北美石油价格降至历史最低。最近在埃及海岸发现了Zohr大气田,将最终会使中海地区和欧洲的石油定价受到影响,在其他很多地方,尤其是阿根廷,也有巨大的发展潜力。[39] 由于供求量过剩、需求降低,尤其是煤炭消耗量占全球一半的中国其煤炭需求量不断减少,所以煤的价格也会走低。

F) 技术创新使再生能源的能量得到释放,如风力、水力、太阳能和地热等。[43] 即使是非洲和中东这样严重依赖化石燃料出口经济的地方,也有很大的潜力开发可再生能源。如阿拉伯联合酋长国已经签署了一项远大目标:到2021年,从可再生能源中获取的主要能源消耗量要占到24%。

G) 然而,如果化石燃料价格持续走低,可再生能源发展中的进步可能会不稳定。[42] 全球主要的能源消耗仍受化石燃料支配,可再生能源只占其中的一小部分——其中,煤炭和石油占30%,天然气占25%。但是,为了避免不愿接受的气候风险,未来,可再生能源将在更大程度上取代化石燃料。

H) 不幸的是,石油、天然气和煤炭目前的低价可能几乎无法刺激人们去做研究来为这些燃料寻找替代品。[40] 有充足的证据表明,清洁技术的创新和使用都会受更高化石燃料价格的大力鼓励。降低化石燃料排放的新技术也是如此。

I) 这样的话,目前较低的化石燃料价格环境势必会推迟从化石燃料向清洁能源转变的过程。除非可再生能源的价格足够低,导致大量碳长期沉积在地下,就算不是永远沉积,地球也将可能会遭遇潜在的灾难性气候风险。

J) 有些气候影响或许已依稀可辨。[38] 如联合国儿童基金会预测,近几十年来将近有1,100万的非洲儿童面临饥饿、疾病和缺水的问题,这些都是由最强烈的厄尔尼诺气候现象导致的。许多科学家认为,由于气候变化,由平洋变暖导致的厄尔尼诺事件正日益强烈。

K) 世界各国的政府首脑齐聚巴黎参加第21届联合国气候变化大会,旨在减少温室气体排放方面达成普遍且具有潜在法律效力的协议。对于因各国未能将该国碳排放对世界上其他国家的负面影响考虑在内从而导致的全球悲剧,我们需要广泛参与才能得以全面地解决。此外,如果不参与的国家达到足够数量,这将会对参与国采取行动的政治意愿有所损害。

L) 第21届联合国气候变化大会的与会国家主要关注在减排量上的承诺。[37] 经济推理显示,对各国来说,最便宜的方式就是对碳排放进行定价。其原因在于,在碳被定价时,那些实施起来花费最低的减排措施会先发生。据国际货币基金组织计算,通过去除化石燃料补贴和对记录由碳排放导致的国内损害的碳排放费用征税,各国财政会获得可观的收入。尽管一些国家可能希望使用排放交易体之类的其他方法给碳排放定价,但对上游的碳源征税是给碳排放定价的一种简单方式。各国的碳定价既要反映碳排放对本国的损害,又要反映出对其他国家造成的损害,以此来确保全球福利的最大化。

M) 所以,为碳设定合适的价格将有效地让碳使用者支付的成本和使用碳的真实社会机会成本保持一致。通过提升清洁能源的相对需求,碳价格也会对保持清洁能源创新的市场回报和社会回报的一致性有所帮助,从而刺激现有技术的改良和新技术的发展。而且,这将使人们对碳捕获和碳储存之类技术的需求得到提高,从而推动这些技术的进一步发展。如果没有合适的碳价格予以更正,较低的化石燃料价格就不能准确地向市场发出清洁能源真正的社会盈利信号。尽管另一些对碳排放造成损害的预测与此有所不同,加上对于可能发生的灾难性气候事件造成的可能成本的预测十分困难,但大多数预测都暗示出其具有巨大的负面影响。

N) 有些政府已经开始对研究和开发予以直接补贴,但以此来取代碳价格调整的效果却不是很好:它们只做了其中的部分工作,维持过度使用化石燃料的市场刺激,从而无需考虑附带成本,但却增加了大气中温室气体的储存量。

O) 希望第21届联合国气候变化大会的成功召开可以为未来国际碳价格的协议打开大门。国际碳价格下限协议将会给这一进程开个好头。[44] 然而,不能将温室气体的排放问题彻底解决会使现在或者未来的人们面临不可估量的风险。

Section C

Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

Passage One

Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.

Open data sharers are still in the minority in many fields. Although many researchers broadly agree that public access to raw data would accelerate science, most are reluctant to post the results of their own labors online.

Some communities have agreed to share online—geneticists, for example, post DNA sequences at the GenBank repository(库), and astronomers are accustomed to accessing images of galaxies and stars from, say, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, a telescope that has observed some 500 million objects—but these remain the exception, not the rule. Historically, scientists have objected to sharing for many reasons: it is a lot of work; until recently, good databases did not exist; grant funders were not pushing for sharing; it has been difficult to agree on standards for formatting data; and there is no agreed way to assign credit for data.

But the barriers are disappearing, in part because journals and funding agencies worldwide are encouraging scientists to make their data public. Last year, the Royal Society in London said in its report that scientists need to “shift away from a research culture where data is viewed as a private preserve”. Funding agencies note that data paid for with public money should be public information, and the scientific community is recognizing that data can now be shared digitally in ways that were not possible before. To match the growing demand, services are springing up to make it easier to publish research products online and enable other researchers to discover and cite them.

Although calls to share data often concentrate on the moral advantages of sharing, the practice is not purely altruistic(利他的). Researchers who share get plenty of personal benefits, including more connections with colleagues, improved visibility and increased citations. The most successful sharers—those whose data are downloaded and cited the most often—get noticed, and their work gets used. For example, one of the most popular data sets on multidisciplinary repository Dryad is about wood density around the world; it has been downloaded 5,700 times. Co-author Amy Zanne thinks that users probably range from climate-change researchers wanting to estimate how much carbon is stored in biomass, to foresters looking for information on different grades of timber. “I’d much prefer to have my data used by the maximum number of people to ask their own questions,” she says. “It’s important to allow readers and reviewers to see exactly how you arrive at your results. Publishing data and code allows your science to be reproducible.”

Even people whose data are less popular can benefit. By making the effort to organize and label files so others can understand them, scientists become more organized and better disciplined themselves, thus avoiding confusion later on.

46. What do many researchers generally accept?

A) It is imperative to protect scientists’ patents.

B) Repositories are essential to scientific research.

C) Open data sharing is most important to medical science.

D) Open data sharing is conducive to scientific advancement.

47. What is the attitude of most researchers towards making their own data public?

A) Opposed.

B) Ambiguous.

C) Liberal.

D) Neutral.

48. According to the passage, what might hinder open data sharing?

A) The fear of massive copying.

B) The lack of a research culture.

C) The belief that research data is private intellectual property.

D) The concern that certain agencies may make a profit out of it.

49. What helps lift some of the barriers to open data sharing?

A) The ever-growing demand for big data.

B) The advancement of digital technology.

C) The changing attitude of journals and funders.

D) The trend of social and economic development.

50. Dryad serves as an example to show how open data sharing _______.

A) is becoming increasingly popular

B) benefits sharers and users alike

C) makes researchers successful

D) saves both money and labor

【答案与解析】

46. D  根据原文第一段内容可知“Although many researchers broadly agree that public access to raw data would accelerate science”,许多研究者广泛认为,公众访问原始数据将会加速科学发展。故选D。

47. A  根据原文第一段内容可知“most are reluctant to post the results of their own labours online”,大多数人不愿意将自己的劳动结果发布在网上。因此大多数人持反对意见,故选A。

48. C  根据原文第三段内容可知“Last year, the Royal Society in London said in its report Science as an Open Enterprise that scientists need to shift away from a research culture where data is viewed as private preserve”,去年,伦敦皇家学会在报告《科学作为一个开放企业》中表示:科学家需要从数据被视为私人保护物的研究文化中转变过来。由此可知,阻碍数据共享的原因就是人们把研究数据视作私人物品,个人享有权益。故选C。

49. C  根据原文第三段内容可知“But the barriers are disappearing in part because journals and funding agencies worldwide are encouraging scientists to make their data public”,即:但这些阻碍正在消失,部分原因是全世界的期刊和资助机构正在鼓励科学家们公开他们的数据。故选C。

50. B  根据原文最后一段内容可知“I would much prefer to have my data used by the maximum number of people to ask their own questions ... It’s important to allow readers and reviewers to see exactly how you arrive at your results. Publishing data and code allows your science to be reproducible”,即:我更希望我的数据能被最大数量的人用来解答疑问。重要的是允许读者和审稿人准确地看到你是如何得出你的结果的。发布数据和代码能让你的科学具有可重复性。因此,数据分享对于分享者和使用者等人来说都有好处,故选B。

【全文翻译】

在许多领域,开放数据共享者仍是少数。虽然许多研究者广泛认为,公众访问原始数据将会加速科学发展,但大多数人不愿意将自己的劳动结果发布在网上。

一些社区已经同意在线共享。例如:遗传学家在GenBank知识库中发布DNA序列,天文学家习惯于通过斯隆数字巡天望远镜访问星系和恒星的图像,这台望远镜已经观察过5亿种天体——但这些仍是特例,而非惯例。在历史上,科学家们已经对共享提出反对意见,原因有很多:工作量大;直到目前为止,好的数据库还不存在;资金资助者并不要求数据共享;很难对格式化的数据和名为元数据的上下文信息的标准达成一致意见;没有约定的方式来确定数据信用。

但这些阻碍正在消失,部分原因是全世界的期刊和资助机构正在鼓励科学家们公开他们的数据。去年,伦敦皇家学会在报告《科学作为一个开放企业》中表示:科学家需要从数据被视为私人保护物的研究文化中转变过来。资助机构指出,由公共资金支付的数据就该是公共信息,而且科学界正在认识到,现在可以以之前不可能的数字方式共享数据。为了满足日益增长的需求,便于在线发布研究产品并使其他研究人员能够发现并引用新产品的服务正不断涌现出来。

虽然,对于共享数据的劝告通常集中在共享的道德优势上,但事实上这并不是纯粹的利他主义。共享数据的研究人员会得到很多个人利益,其中包括与同事取得更多地联系,知名度提升,引用率升高。最成功的共享者——他们的数据被下载得最多、引用地最多——得到了关注,他们的成果得以利用。例如:多学科知识库中最流行的数据集之一。德鲁伊是关于全世界的木材密度的;它已被下载5700次。合著者Amy Zanne是华盛顿特区乔治华盛顿大学的一位生物学家,他认为用户范围可能会包括想要估计生物量内储存多少二氧化碳的气候变化研究人员,一直到寻找不同等级木材信息的林农。她说:“我更希望我的数据能被最多的人用来解答疑问。重要的是允许读者和审稿人准确地看到你是如何得出你的结果的。发布数据和代码可以让你的科学具有可重复性。”

即使是那些发布的数据没那么受欢迎的科学家也能从中受益。通过努力对文件进行组织和标记可使得他人能够理解他们。科学家的思路因此变得更有组织性,人也更加自律,如此一来可以避免以后出现混乱。

Passage Two

Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.

Macy’s reported its sales plunged 5.2% in November and December at stores open more than a year, a disappointing holiday season performance that capped a difficult year for a department store chain facing wide-ranging challenges. Its flagship stores in major U.S. cities depend heavily on international tourist spending, which shrank at many retailers due to a strong dollar. Meanwhile, Macy’s has simply struggled to lure consumers who are more interested in spending on travel or dining out than on new clothes or accessories.

The company blamed much of the poor performance in November and December on unseasonably warm weather. “About 80% of our company’s year-over-year declines in comparable sales can be attributed to shortfalls(短缺) in cold-weather goods,” said chief executive Terry Lundgren in a press release. This prompted the company to cut its forecasts for the full fourth quarter.

However, it’s clear that Macy’s believes its troubles run deeper than a temporary aberration(偏离) off the thermometer. The retail giant said the poor financial performance this year has pushed it to begin implementing $400 million in cost-cutting measures. The company pledged to cut 600 back-office positions, though some 150 workers in those roles would be reassigned to other jobs. It also plans to offer “voluntary separation” packages to 165 senior executives. It will slash staffing at its fleet of 770 stores, a move affecting some 3,000 employees.

The retailer also announced the locations of 36 stores it will close in early 2016. The company had previously announced the planned closures, but had not said which locations would be affected. None of the chain’s stores in the Washington metropolitan area are to be closed.

Macy’s has been moving aggressively to try to remake itself for a new era of shopping. It has plans to open more locations of Macy’s Backstage, a newly-developed off-price concept which might help it better compete with ambitious T.J. Maxx. It’s also pushing ahead in 2016 with an expansion of Bluemercury, the beauty chain it bought last year. At a time when young beauty shoppers are often turning to Sephora or Ulta instead of department store beauty counters, Macy’s hopes Bluemercury will help strengthen its position in the category.

One relative bright spot for Macy’s during the holiday season was the online channel, where it rang up “double-digit” increases in sales and a 25% increase in the number of orders it filled. That relative strength would be consistent with what was seen in the wider retail industry during the early part of the holiday season. While Thanksgiving, Black Friday and Cyber Monday all saw record spending online, in-store sales plunged over the holiday weekend.

51. What does the author say about the shrinking spending of international tourists in the U.S.?

A) It is attributable to the rising value of the U.S. dollar.

B) It is a direct result of the global economic recession.

C) It reflects a shift of their interest in consumer goods.

D) It poses a potential threat to the retail business in the U.S.

52. What does Macy’s believe about its problems?

A) They can be solved with better management.

B) They cannot be attributed to weather only.

C) They are not as serious in its online stores.

D) They call for increased investments.

53. In order to cut costs, Macy’s decided to ______.

A) cut the salary of senior executives

B) relocate some of its chain stores

C) adjust its promotion strategies

D) reduce the size of its staff

54. Why does Macy’s plan to expand Bluemercury in 2016?

A) To experiment on its new business concept.

B) To focus more on beauty products than clothing.

C) To promote sales of its products by lowering prices.

D) To be more competitive in sales of beauty products.

55. What can we learn about Macy’s during the holiday season?

A) Sales dropped sharply in its physical stores.

B) Its retail sales exceeded those of T.J. Maxx.

C) It helped Bluemercury establish its position worldwide.

D) It filled its stores with abundant supply of merchandise.

【答案与解析】

51. A  根据原文第一段内容可知“Its flagship stores in major U. S. cities depend heavily on international tourist spending, which shrank at many retailers due to a strong dollar”,该公司分布于美国主要城市的旗舰店主要依靠国际游客的消费,许多零售店的国际旅游消费因为美元坚挺而有所下降。故选A。

52. B  根据原文第二段和第三段内容可知“The company blamed much of the poor performance in November and December on unseasonably warm weather ... However, it’s clear that Macy’s believes its troubles run deeper than a temporary aberration off the thermometer”,该公司将11、12月这两个月份业绩不佳的主要原因归于反季节的温暖天气……然而,清楚的是,梅西百货相信这次麻烦远比气温偶尔不正常要大得多。故选B。

53. D  根据原文第三段内容可知“The retail giant said the poor financial performance this year has pushed it to begin implementing $400 million in cost-cutting measures. The company pledged to cut 600 back-office positions, though some 150 workers in those roles would be reassigned to other jobs. It also plans to offer “voluntary separation” packages to 165 senior executives. It will slash staffing at its fleet of 770 stores, a move affecting some 3,000 employees”,该零售巨头表示,今年差得可怜的财务业绩将使公司不得不开始削减4亿开支。公司发誓要减少600个后勤岗位,尽管那些岗位中大约有150名员工将接受公司的重新安排去做其他的工作。公司还计划为165名高管提供“自动离职”计划。公司会对770个门店的员工人数进行削减,这一举动将会对大约3,000名员工造成影响。总体看来,该公司要削减员工数量。故选D。

54. D  根据原文第五段内容可知“It’s also pushing ahead in 2016 with an expansion of Bluemercury, the beauty chain it bought last year. At a time when young beauty shoppers are often turning to Sephora or Ulta instead of department store beauty counters, Macy’s hopes Bluemercury will help strengthen its position in the category”,随着去年收购的美妆用品连锁店Bluemercury的不断扩张,该公司将在2016年不断前行。在这个年轻人往往去Sephora或Ulta而不去百货商场美妆专柜购买美妆的时代,梅西百货希望Bluemercury能够助其加强在这一领域的地位。故选D。

55. A  根据原文内容可知“Macy’s reported its sales plunged 5.2% in November and December at stores open more than a year ... While Thanksgiving, Black Friday and Cyber Monday all saw record spending online, in-store sales plunged over the holiday weekend”,据梅西百货报告,该公司开业一年以上的商店其11月和12月的销售额下降了5.2%……虽然在感恩节、黑色星期五和网络星期一等日子的网上销售额屡见新高,但是节假日门店的销售额却不断下降。故选A。

【全文翻译】

据梅西百货报告,该公司开业一年以上的商店其11月和12月的销售额下降了5.2%,对于一个面临多方面挑战的百货公司连锁店来说,这样的假期季销售情况令人颇为失望,这也预示着艰难的一年就此结束。该公司分布于美国主要城市的旗舰店主要依靠国际游客的消费,许多零售店的国际旅游消费因为美元坚挺而有所下降。与此同时,梅西百货只是努力吸引那些对旅游或外出就餐更感兴趣的顾客,而没有吸引那些对新的服装和饰品感兴趣的顾客。

该公司将11、12月这两个月份业绩不佳的主要原因归于反季节的温暖天气。该公司首席执行官Terry Lundgren在媒体发布会上讲道:“我们公司年度同比销售额下降约80%,这是因为寒冷天气货物短缺所致。”这导致公司对整个第四季度的预期进行了削减。

然而,清楚的是,梅西百货相信这次麻烦远比气温偶尔不正常要大得多。该零售巨头表示,今年差得可怜的财务业绩将使公司不得不开始削减4亿开支。公司发誓要减少600个后勤岗位,尽管那些岗位中大约有150名员工将接受公司的重新安排去做其他的工作。公司还计划为165名高管提供“自动离职”计划。公司会对770个门店的员工人数进行削减,这一举动将会对大约3,000名员工造成影响。

2016年初,公司将关闭36个门店,该零售商公布了要关闭的门店的位置。尽管公司先前已经公布过将要关闭门店的计划,但它并没有说哪些位置的门店将会受此计划影响。华盛顿市区的连锁店将继续运营。

梅西百货一直在积极努力地让自己重塑一个新的商业时代。它也将开设更多的“梅西幕后点”列入计划之内,这样能帮助该公司更好地对抗其野心勃勃的对手T. J. Maxx的一种新型折扣店理念。随着去年收购的美妆用品连锁店Bluemercury的不断扩张,该公司将在2016年不断前行。在这个年轻人往往去Sephora或Ulta而不去百货商场美妆专柜购买美妆的时代,梅西百货希望Bluemercury能够助其加强在这一领域的地位。

梅西在这个假期季中的相对亮点在于它的在线销售渠道,在线销售有了两位数的增长,而且完成的订单数也增长了25%。该增长将与在这个假期季早期在更广泛的零售业中的所见保持一致。虽然在感恩节、黑色星期五和网络星期一等日子的网上销售额屡见新高,但是节假日门店的销售额却不断下降。

Part Ⅳ Translation (30 minutes)

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from Chinese into English. You should write your answer on Answer Sheet 2.

明朝统治中国276年,被人们描绘成人类历史上治理有序、社会稳定的最伟大的时代之一。这一时期,手工业的发展促进了市场经济和城市化。大量商品,包括酒和丝绸,都在市场销售。同时,还进口许多外国商品,如时钟和烟草。北京、南京、扬州、苏州这样的大商业中心相继形成。也是在明代,由郑和率领的船队曾到印度洋进行了七次大规模探险航行。还值得一提的是,中国文学的四大经典名著中有三部写于明代。

【参考译文】

Having ruled China for 276 years, the Ming Dynasty was portrayed as one of the greatest times in human’s history for its orderly governance and stable society. During this period, the development of handicraft industry prompted the market economy and urbanization. A large number of goods are sold on the market, including alcohol and silk. Meanwhile, and a lot of foreign products, such as clocks and tobacco, were also imported. Large business centers like Beijing, Nanjing, Yangzhou, Suzhou emerged one by one. It was also in the Ming Dynasty that fleets led by Zheng He made seven large-scale and adventurous exploration voyages to the India Ocean. It is to be observed that three of four classic masterpieces in Chinese literature were written in the Ming Dynasty.

【译文注释】

1. 原文第一句分为两部分,一是明朝统治的时间,另一个是其特点,两句的主语都是明朝,合并为一句翻译。

2. 原文第二句“促进了”译为prompt。

3. 原文第三四句都在讲贸易的内容,翻译时可合并为一句。

4. 原文第五句“相继形成”译为emerged one by one,指“一个接一个地涌现出来”。

5. 原文第六句用了“It is ... that ...”强调句型。

6. 原文最后一句“四大经典名著”译为four classic masterpieces in Chinese literature。


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